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Space Weather Update: 12/25/2015

By, 12/25/2015

CHRISTMAS FULL MOON: Santa can turn off his headlamp. Why? Because the Moon will be full on Christmas. The last time the full Moon fell on Dec. 25th was 1977, and it won't happen again until 2034. That makes the Christmas Full Moon of 2015 a rare event. Enjoy the holiday moonlight. [photo gallery]

FULL MOON HALOS: The Moon is waxing full, and there is a chill in the air. That means it's time to be alert for icy Moon halos. Aurora tour guide Marketa S. Murray photographed this specimen on Dec. 22nd over Alaska's Denali National Park:


"We drove 2.5 hours to find a patch of clear sky, but it was worth every minute of it to see the auroras and the Moon halo together," says Murray.

Moon halos are created by ice crystals in high clouds, which catch rays of moonlight and bend them into a 22o ring. Bright full Moons are great at making these halos--and you don't have to be in Alaska to see them. The ice crystals that create them float 5 km to 10 km above the ground; those altitudes are always freezing, everywhere in the world.

Realtime Spaceweather Photo Gallery

SOLAR FLARE AND RADIO BLACKOUT: In the past 24 hours, sunspot AR2473 has more than quadrupled in size. On Dec. 23rd (00:40 UT) it erupted, producing anM4-class solar flare. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory recorded the extreme ultraviolet flash:


UV radiation from the flare bathed the top of Earth's atmosphere, ionizing atoms and molecules, and altering the normal propagation of radio transmissions. Around the South Pacific Ocean, where the sun was high in the sky, a full-fledged shortwave radio blackout occured. This map from NOAA shows the affected area:


The type of people who would notice such a blackout are ham radio operators, mariners, and some aviators who use shortwave radio in their work. The event lasted approximately half an hour.

More flares and blackouts are possible in the days ahead as AR2374 turns toward Earth. NOAA forecasters estimate a 45% chance of M-class explosions on Dec. 23-24. Solar flare alerts: text or voice

Realtime Spaceweather Photo Gallery

LAST-MINUTE, OUT-OF-THIS-WORLD CHRISTMAS GIFT: Is there a young scientist in your life? For Christmas, you can give them the gift of exploration--specifically, a trip to the edge of space:


To raise funds for its student research program, Earth to Sky Calculus is selling a limited number of Holiday Season balloon flights carrying ... whatever you desire. Small experiments. Holiday or anniversary photos. Business advertisements. The sky is the limit. Young people receiving this gift can design their own experiment and attend the launch via Skype. The gift includes a brainstorming session via Skype with Dr. Tony Phillips and the students of Earth to Sky. Cost: $500. Buy now and receive the certificate by email in time for Christmas. Contact Dr. Tony Phillips to book your flight.

Realtime Aurora Photo Gallery

Realtime Meteor Photo Gallery

Realtime Comet Photo Gallery

 All Sky Fireball Network

Every night, a network of NASA all-sky cameras scans the skies above the United States for meteoritic fireballs. Automated software maintained by NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office calculates their orbits, velocity, penetration depth in Earth's atmosphere and many other characteristics. Daily results are presented here on

On Dec. 24, 2015, the network reported 52 fireballs.
(51 sporadics, 1 December Leonis Minorid)



In this diagram of the inner solar system, all of the fireball orbits intersect at a single point--Earth. The orbits are color-coded by velocity, from slow (red) to fast (blue). [Larger image] [movies]


 Near Earth Asteroids

Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are space rocks larger than approximately 100m that can come closer to Earth than 0.05 AU. None of the known PHAs is on a collision course with our planet, although astronomers are finding new ones all the time.

On December 25, 2015 there were 1646 potentially hazardous asteroids.

Recent & Upcoming Earth-asteroid encounters:Asteroid


Miss Distance


2015 YQ1

Dec 22

1.4 LD

10 m

2015 YE1

Dec 22

5.5 LD

15 m

2015 YC1

Dec 22

3.9 LD

27 m

2015 YK

Dec 22

8.9 LD

28 m

2015 XN261

Dec 23

2.6 LD

26 m

2015 YJ1

Dec 24

7.4 LD

14 m

2015 XX378

Dec 24

6.9 LD

49 m

2011 YD29

Dec 24

9.7 LD

24 m

2003 SD220

Dec 24

28.4 LD

1.8 km

2008 CM

Dec 29

22.8 LD

1.5 km

2015 XV351

Dec 29

5.3 LD

28 m

2015 XC352

Dec 30

5.2 LD

30 m

2015 YT1

Dec 31

13.5 LD

17 m

2004 MQ1

Jan 2

55.4 LD

1.1 km

1999 JV6

Jan 6

12.6 LD

410 m

2015 YC2

Jan 15

4.9 LD

101 m

1685 Toro

Jan 22

60.9 LD

1.7 km

2001 XR1

Jan 23

74.4 LD

1.5 km

2015 VC2

Jan 28

5.8 LD

15 m

2015 XA379

Feb 6

7.7 LD

33 m

Notes: LD means "Lunar Distance." 1 LD = 384,401 km, the distance between Earth and the Moon. 1 LD also equals 0.00256 AU. MAG is the visual magnitude of the asteroid on the date of closest approach.

 Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere

Situation Report -- Oct. 30, 2015Stratospheric Radiation (+37o N)

Cosmic ray levels are elevated(+6.1% above the Space Age median). The trend is flat. Cosmic ray levels have increased +0% in the past month.

Sept. 06: 4.14 uSv/hr (414 uRad/hr)

Sept. 12: 4.09 uSv/hr (409 uRad/hr)

Sept. 23: 4.12 uSv/hr (412 uRad/hr)

Sept. 25: 4.16 uSv/hr (416 uRad/hr)

Sept. 27: 4.13 uSv/hr (413 uRad/hr)

Oct. 11: 4.02 uSv/hr (402 uRad/hr)

Oct. 22: 4.11 uSv/hr (411 uRad/hr)

These measurements are based on regular space weather balloon flights: learn more.

Approximately once a week, and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus fly "space weather balloons" to the stratosphere over California. These balloons are equipped with radiation sensors that detect cosmic rays, a surprisingly "down to Earth" form of space weather. Cosmic rays can seed cloudstrigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. Our measurements show that someone flying back and forth across the continental USA, just once, can absorb as much ionizing radiation as 2 to 5 dental X-rays. Here is the data from our latest flight, Oct. 22nd:

Radiation levels peak at the entrance to the stratosphere in a broad region called the "Pfotzer Maximum." This peak is named after physicist George Pfotzer who discovered it using balloons and Geiger tubes in the 1930s. Radiation levels there are more than 80x sea level.

Note that the bottom of the Pfotzer Maximim is near 55,000 ft. This means that some high-flying aircraft are not far from the zone of maximum radiation. Indeed, according to the Oct 22th measurements, a plane flying at 45,000 feet is exposed to 2.79 uSv/hr. At that rate, a passenger would absorb about one dental X-ray's worth of radiation in about 5 hours.

The radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.

Current Conditions

Solar wind
speed: 496.3 km/sec
density: 7.0 protons/cm3

explanation | more data
Updated: Today at 1248 UTX-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: C2 
0938 UT Dec25 
24-hr: C2 0938 UT Dec25 
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at: 1200 UTDaily Sun: 24 Dec 15Sunspot AR2473 has a 'beta-gamma' magnetic field that harbors energy for strong M-class solar flares. Credit: SDO/HMI

Sunspot number: 51 
What is the sunspot number?
Updated 24 Dec 2015

Spotless Days
Current Stretch: 0 days
2015 total: 0 days (0%) 

2014 total: 1 day (<1%)
2013 total: 0 days (0%)
2012 total: 0 days (0%)
2011 total: 2 days (<1%)
2010 total: 51 days (14%)
2009 total: 260 days (71%)

Updated 24 Dec 2015

The Radio Sun
10.7 cm flux: 134 sfu

explanation | more data
Updated 24 Dec 2015

Current Auroral Oval:

Switch to: Europe, USA, New Zealand, Antarctica
Credit: NOAA/OvationPlanetary K-index
Now: Kp= 2 quiet
24-hr max: Kp= 3 
explanation | more data
Interplanetary Mag. Field
Btotal: 7.1 nT
Bz: 5.1 nT north 

explanation | more data
Updated: Today at 1250 UTCoronal Holes: 24 Dec 15 
A stream of solar wind flowing from this southern coronal hole could brush against Earth's magnetic field as early as Dec. 24-25. Credit: SDO/AIA.Noctilucent Clouds The southern season for noctilucent clouds is about to begin. Monitor the daily daisies, below, from NASA's AIM spacecraft for the first wisps of electric blue above Antarctica.

Switch view: Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula, East Antarctica, PolarUpdated at: 12-24-2015 17:55:02

NOAA Forecasts

Updated at: 2015 Dec 24 2200 UTC


0-24 hr

24-48 hr


45 %

45 %


10 %

10 %

Geomagnetic Storms:
Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth's magnetic field are given for three activity levels: activeminor stormsevere stormUpdated at: 2015 Dec 24 2200 UTCMid-latitudes

0-24 hr

24-48 hr


20 %

15 %


05 %

05 %


01 %

01 %

High latitudes

0-24 hr

24-48 hr


20 %

20 %


25 %

25 %


25 %

20 %