Love Has Won


We Are The First Contact Ground Crew Team, who are preparing to take Humanity Home Into The Light.

Space Weather Update: 04/27/2016

By, 04/27/2016

SOLAR SECTOR BOUNDARY CROSSING (UPDATED): On April 29th or 30th, Earth will cross a fold in the heliospheric current sheet--a vast wavy structure in interplanetary space separating regions of opposite magnetic polarity. This is called a "solar sector boundary crossing," and it could trigger geomagnetic activity around Earth's poles. NOAA forecasters estimate a 40% chance of G1-class geomagnetic storms on April 29th. Aurora alerts: text or voice

WHAT'S AROUND THE BEND? The face of the sun is dotted by small, quiet sunspots. A more active region may be just around the bend. On April 26th, Jack Newton of Osoyoos, British Columbia, photographed plumes of hot magnetized plasma rising over the sun's northeastern limb:


"The sun is active," says Newton. Indeed, these flame-like prominences could herald the approach of a new sunspot from the farside of the sun. Got a solar telescope? Monitoring is encouraged.

Realtime Space Weather Photo Gallery

CONTRAIL SHADOWS: Earlier today, a tnetwork ofhin layer of icy clouds passed in front of the sun over Vienna, Austria. Immediately, a bright ice halo surrounded the sun--a result of refraction by the cloud's inner ice crystals. As Jennifer Werner was photographing the display, a plane flew by, bisecting the halo. Look at the picture and answer this question: Is the contrail above or below the clouds?


Visually, the dense white contrail appears to be underneath the clouds. But the contrail's shadow tells a different story. In fact, the contrail is above, casting its shadow on the clouds below. Where the shadow steals sunlight from the ice crystals in the cloud, the circular halo vanishes.

Not everything in the sky is as it seems. More examples may be found in the realtime photo gallery:

Realtime Space Weather Photo Gallery

PENGUINS SERENADE AURORAS: As northern summer approaches, the midnight skies of the Arctic Circle are no longer completely dark. Aurora season is therefore shifting from north to south. For the next four months or so, the velvety-dark skies of Antarctica are the perfect backdrop for auroras. Penguins on the Brunt Ice Shelf serenaded this display on April 16th:


"I camped out in the field, enduring temperatures around -32°C to -34°C to witnessthis fantastic glow of green and purple," says photographer Greig Lawson. "This is at the site of an Emperor penguin colony. The calls of the birds in the background provided the soundtrack to the evening's photography!"

Lawson is a medical doctor working at the British Antarctic Survey's Halley Research Station. Located atop the Brunt Ice Shelf, a 130 meter thick slab of frozen water that floats atop the Weddell Sea, Halley is known for its studies of ozone, cosmic rays, and climate change. Lawson will be busy in the months ahead tending to the station's wintertime staff of 16. Hopefully, he'll have time send more pictures as geomagnetic storms paint their colors on Antarctic skies. Aurora alerts: text orvoice

Realtime Aurora Photo Gallery

Realtime Comet Photo Gallery

 All Sky Fireball Network

Every night, a network of NASA all-sky cameras scans the skies above the United States for meteoritic fireballs. Automated software maintained by NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office calculates their orbits, velocity, penetration depth in Earth's atmosphere and many other characteristics. Daily results are presented here on

On Apr. 27, 2016, the network reported 9 fireballs.
(9 sporadics)



In this diagram of the inner solar system, all of the fireball orbits intersect at a single point--Earth. The orbits are color-coded by velocity, from slow (red) to fast (blue). [Larger image] [movies]


 Near Earth Asteroids

Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are space rocks larger than approximately 100m that can come closer to Earth than 0.05 AU. None of the known PHAs is on a collision course with our planet, although astronomers are finding new ones all the time.

On April 27, 2016 there were 1696 potentially hazardous asteroids.

Recent & Upcoming Earth-asteroid encounters:Asteroid


Miss Distance


2016 GC222

Apr 24

14 LD

31 m

2016 HO

Apr 24

2.1 LD

31 m

2016 FY3

Apr 25

6.4 LD

310 m

2001 VG5

Apr 28

52.4 LD

1.8 km

2016 HK

May 1

4.6 LD

49 m

2014 US115

May 1

9.4 LD

52 m

2016 HN

May 4

12.3 LD

145 m

2008 TZ3

May 5

13.1 LD

355 m

2014 JG55

May 8

7.6 LD

7 m

2016 GS2

May 18

3.4 LD

109 m

2009 DL46

May 24

6.2 LD

215 m

1997 XF11

Jun 10

70 LD

1.8 km

2015 XZ378

Jun 13

9.7 LD

16 m

2009 CV

Jun 20

12.4 LD

60 m

2010 NY65

Jun 24

10.7 LD

215 m

Notes: LD means "Lunar Distance." 1 LD = 384,401 km, the distance between Earth and the Moon. 1 LD also equals 0.00256 AU. MAG is the visual magnitude of the asteroid on the date of closest approach.

 Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere

Situation Report -- Oct. 30, 2015Stratospheric Radiation (+37o N)

Cosmic ray levels are elevated(+6.1% above the Space Age median). The trend is flat. Cosmic ray levels have increased +0% in the past month.

Sept. 06: 4.14 uSv/hr (414 uRad/hr)

Sept. 12: 4.09 uSv/hr (409 uRad/hr)

Sept. 23: 4.12 uSv/hr (412 uRad/hr)

Sept. 25: 4.16 uSv/hr (416 uRad/hr)

Sept. 27: 4.13 uSv/hr (413 uRad/hr)

Oct. 11: 4.02 uSv/hr (402 uRad/hr)

Oct. 22: 4.11 uSv/hr (411 uRad/hr)

These measurements are based on regular space weather balloon flights: learn more.

Approximately once a week, and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus fly "space weather balloons" to the stratosphere over California. These balloons are equipped with radiation sensors that detect cosmic rays, a surprisingly "down to Earth" form of space weather. Cosmic rays can seed cloudstrigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. Our measurements show that someone flying back and forth across the continental USA, just once, can absorb as much ionizing radiation as 2 to 5 dental X-rays. For example, here is the data from a flight on Oct. 22, 2015:


Radiation levels peak at the entrance to the stratosphere in a broad region called the "Pfotzer Maximum." This peak is named after physicist George Pfotzer who discovered it using balloons and Geiger tubes in the 1930s. Radiation levels there are more than 80x sea level.

Note that the bottom of the Pfotzer Maximim is near 55,000 ft. This means that some high-flying aircraft are not far from the zone of maximum radiation. Indeed, according to the Oct 22th measurements, a plane flying at 45,000 feet is exposed to 2.79 uSv/hr. At that rate, a passenger would absorb about one dental X-ray's worth of radiation in about 5 hours.

The radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.


Current Conditions

Solar wind
speed: 440.1 km/sec
density: 2.6 protons/cm3

explanation | more data
Updated: Today at 1928 UTX-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: B5
1321 UT Apr27
24-hr: B7 0351 UT Apr27
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at: 1900 UTDaily Sun: 27 Apr 16None of these sunspots poses a threat for strong flares. Solar activity remains low. Credit: SDO/HMI

Sunspot number: 65
What is the sunspot number?
Updated 27 Apr 2016

Spotless Days
Current Stretch: 0 days
2016 total: 0 days (0%) 
2015 total: 0 days (0%) 

2014 total: 1 day (<1%)
2013 total: 0 days (0%)
2012 total: 0 days (0%)
2011 total: 2 days (<1%)
2010 total: 51 days (14%)
2009 total: 260 days (71%)

Updated 27 Apr 2016

The Radio Sun
10.7 cm flux: 82 sfu

explanation | more data
Updated 27 Apr 2016

Current Auroral Oval:


Switch to: Europe, USA, New Zealand, Antarctica
Credit: NOAA/OvationPlanetary K-index
Now: Kp= 3 quiet
24-hr max: Kp= 3
explanation | more data
Interplanetary Mag. Field
Btotal: 5.1 nT
Bz: 0.5 nT south

explanation | more data
Updated: Today at 1929 UTCoronal Holes: 27 Apr 16Solar wind flowing from this small coronal hole could reach Earth on May 1-2. Credit: SDO/AIA.Noctilucent Clouds The southern season for noctilucent clouds began on Dec. 13, 2015. It is expected to end in late February or March 2016.


Switch view: Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula, East Antarctica, PolarUpdated at: 02-12-2016 16:55:02

NOAA Forecasts

Updated at: 2016 Apr 26 2200 UTC


0-24 hr

24-48 hr


01 %

01 %


01 %

01 %

Geomagnetic Storms:
Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth's magnetic field are given for three activity levels: activeminor stormsevere stormUpdated at: 2016 Apr 26 2200 UTCMid-latitudes

0-24 hr

24-48 hr


10 %

10 %


01 %

01 %


01 %

01 %

High latitudes

0-24 hr

24-48 hr


20 %

15 %


20 %

20 %


10 %

10 %