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Space Weather Update: 07/30/2016

By, 07/30/2016

COSMIC RAYS AND HEART DISEASE: A new study just published in the journal Scientific Reports concludes that Apollo astronauts who traveled to the Moon were 4 to 5 times more likely to die of cardiovascular disease than astronauts who never went beyond low Earth orbit. The culprit: cosmic rays. According to the authors "[space radiation] induces a sustained vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. Such impairment is known to lead to occlusive artery disease, and may be an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease among astronauts exposed to deep space radiation." Something to think about if you're planning a trip to Mars....

INCOMING SOLAR STORM: During the late hours of July 28th, a filament of magnetism erupted on the sun, slingshotting a cloud of plasma (CME) into space. Scroll past the movie of the CME to learn when it will hit Earth:


NOAA analysts have computer-modeled the trajectory of this CME, and they say it is likely to strike Earth's magnetic field on August 1st. This is not a major storm cloud. Nevertheless, the impact could spark G1-class geomagnetic storms. High-latitude sky watchers should be alert for auroras when the CME arrives. Aurora alerts: text or voice

Realtime Aurora Photo Gallery

SUNRISE IN ANTARCTICA: After two months of almost total winter darkness, the sun is rising again on the outskirts of Antarctica. B Sudarsan Patro sends this picture from the Bharati Indian Base Station in the Larsemann Hills overlooking Prydz Bay (69o S):


"Today we have observeda colorful sunrise and sunset," says Patro. "After a long wait of 65 days,  the polar sun appeared and it was absolutely stunning. We all are happy to see the sun with new rays of hope."

Of course, the return of the Antarctic sun reduces the hours for watching Southern Lights. But daytime has its rewards, too. Stay tuned for more images from the frozen continent.

Realtime Space Weather Photo Gallery

WHERE NO DUCK HAS GONE BEFORE: Yes, that really is a Vulcan rubber duck! The students of Earth to Sky Calculus flew the pointy-eared water bird to the stratosphere on July 19, 2016, as part of their ongoing program to monitor cosmic rays in the stratosphere. Here he is at the apex of the flight, 109,580 ft:


"Mr Squawk" hitchhiked on a helium balloon payload that carried an array of X-ray/gamma-ray sensors. By launching these sensors 3 or 4 times a month, the students have shown that cosmic rays are intensifying--a trend that affects mountain climbers, air travelers, high-altitude drones and astronauts on the International Space Station.

This research is crowd funded. Would you like to support it? Buy a duck! Edge of Space Vulcan Ducks are now available in the Earth to Sky Store

Realtime Noctilucent Cloud Photo Gallery

Realtime Sprite Photo Gallery


 All Sky Fireball Network

Every night, a network of NASA all-sky cameras scans the skies above the United States for meteoritic fireballs. Automated software maintained by NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office calculates their orbits, velocity, penetration depth in Earth's atmosphere and many other characteristics. Daily results are presented here on

On Jul. 30, 2016, the network reported 43 fireballs.
(36 sporadics, 6 Southern delta Aquariids, 1 alpha Capricornid)



In this diagram of the inner solar system, all of the fireball orbits intersect at a single point--Earth. The orbits are color-coded by velocity, from slow (red) to fast (blue). [Larger image] [movies]


 Near Earth Asteroids

Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are space rocks larger than approximately 100m that can come closer to Earth than 0.05 AU. None of the known PHAs is on a collision course with our planet, although astronomers are finding new ones all the time.

On July 30, 2016 there were 1714 potentially hazardous asteroids.

Recent & Upcoming Earth-asteroid encounters:Asteroid


Miss Distance


2011 BX18

Jul 25

52.7 LD

1.1 km

2016 NW15

Jul 26

13.7 LD

35 m

2016 NE39

Jul 26

6.7 LD

88 m

2016 NX22

Aug 2

13 LD

86 m

2005 OH3

Aug 3

5.8 LD

28 m

2000 DP107

Aug 12

66.5 LD

1.0 km

2004 BO41

Sep 7

38.9 LD

1.1 km

2015 KE

Sep 10

14.9 LD

23 m

2009 UG

Sep 30

7.3 LD

101 m

Notes: LD means "Lunar Distance." 1 LD = 384,401 km, the distance between Earth and the Moon. 1 LD also equals 0.00256 AU. MAG is the visual magnitude of the asteroid on the date of closest approach.

 Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere

Situation Report -- Oct. 30, 2015Stratospheric Radiation (+37o N)

Cosmic ray levels are elevated(+6.1% above the Space Age median). The trend is flat. Cosmic ray levels have increased +0% in the past month.

Sept. 06: 4.14 uSv/hr (414 uRad/hr)

Sept. 12: 4.09 uSv/hr (409 uRad/hr)

Sept. 23: 4.12 uSv/hr (412 uRad/hr)

Sept. 25: 4.16 uSv/hr (416 uRad/hr)

Sept. 27: 4.13 uSv/hr (413 uRad/hr)

Oct. 11: 4.02 uSv/hr (402 uRad/hr)

Oct. 22: 4.11 uSv/hr (411 uRad/hr)

These measurements are based on regular space weather balloon flights: learn more.

Approximately once a week, and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus fly "space weather balloons" to the stratosphere over California. These balloons are equipped with radiation sensors that detect cosmic rays, a surprisingly "down to Earth" form of space weather. Cosmic rays can seed cloudstrigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. Our measurements show that someone flying back and forth across the continental USA, just once, can absorb as much ionizing radiation as 2 to 5 dental X-rays. For example, here is the data from a flight on Oct. 22, 2015:


Radiation levels peak at the entrance to the stratosphere in a broad region called the "Pfotzer Maximum." This peak is named after physicist George Pfotzer who discovered it using balloons and Geiger tubes in the 1930s. Radiation levels there are more than 80x sea level.

Note that the bottom of the Pfotzer Maximim is near 55,000 ft. This means that some high-flying aircraft are not far from the zone of maximum radiation. Indeed, according to the Oct 22th measurements, a plane flying at 45,000 feet is exposed to 2.79 uSv/hr. At that rate, a passenger would absorb about one dental X-ray's worth of radiation in about 5 hours.

The radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.


Current Conditions

Solar wind
speed: 415.7 km/sec
density: 2.9 protons/cm3

explanation | more data
Updated: Today at 2003 UTX-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: A6
1829 UT Jul30
24-hr: B5 0935 UT Jul30
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at: 2000 UTDaily Sun: 30 Jul 16Sunspot AR2570 is small and quiet. Solar activity remains low. Credit: SDO/HMI

Sunspot number: 13
What is the sunspot number?
Updated 30 Jul 2016

Spotless Days
Current Stretch: 0 days
2016 total: 18 days (9%) 
2015 total: 0 days (0%) 

2014 total: 1 day (<1%)
2013 total: 0 days (0%)
2012 total: 0 days (0%)
2011 total: 2 days (<1%)
2010 total: 51 days (14%)
2009 total: 260 days (71%)

Updated 30 Jul 2016

The Radio Sun
10.7 cm flux: 71 sfu

explanation | more data
Updated 30 Jul 2016

Current Auroral Oval:


Switch to: Europe, USA, New Zealand, Antarctica
Credit: NOAA/OvationPlanetary K-index
Now: Kp= 1 quiet
24-hr max: Kp= 3
explanation | more data
Interplanetary Mag. Field
Btotal: 2.1 nT
Bz: 0.1 nT south

explanation | more data
Updated: Today at 2002 UTCoronal Holes: 30 Jul 16
Solar wind flowing from the indicated coronal hole should reach Earth on ~Aug. 3rd. Credit: SDO/AIA.Noctilucent Clouds Images from NASA's AIM spacecraft are once again appearing on Check back daily for space-based sightings of noctilucent clouds.


Switch view: Europe, USA, Asia, PolarUpdated at: 07-29-2016 16:04:17

NOAA Forecasts

Updated at: 2016 Jul 29 2200 UTC


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Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth's magnetic field are given for three activity levels: activeminor stormsevere stormUpdated at: 2016 Jul 29 2200 UTCMid-latitudes

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