Love Has Won


We Are The First Contact Ground Crew Team, who are preparing to take Humanity Home Into The Light.

Space Weather Update: 06/07/2016

By, 06/07/2016

NO SUNSPOTS: Sunspots vanished 4 days ago, and they still haven't come back. As a result, the sun's X-ray output is flatlining. There hasn't been even a tiny solar flare since last week. Quiet conditions are likely to continue as long as the face of the sun remains blank. Solar flare alerts: textvoice.

WHEN A RAINBOW IS NOT A RAINBOW: We've all seen rainbows. But have you ever seen a rainbow of fire? Cata Alonso Castro photographed one over Pine Lake, California, on June 5th:


"I thought the lake, trees, and mountains were wonderful, but when I saw that rainbow in the clouds I just couldn't believe my eyes," says Cata.

The correct name of this phenomenon is circumhorizon arc. It's a colorful splash of light caused by sunbeams striking crystals of ice in cirrus clouds. Commonly called "fire rainbows" or "rainbows of fire," circumhorizon arcs have nothing to do with either rain or fire. They are a sign of ice floating in clouds some 10 km above the ground.

Summer is the season for circumhorizontal arcs because they appear only when the sun is high in the sky--more than 58o above the horizon. The arc's enormous size and pure spectral colors make it one of the most beautiful of allice halos.

Realtime Space Weather Photo Gallery

SOUTHERN LIGHTS: On June 5th and 6th, a stream of solar wind buffeted Earth's magnetic field, sparking bright auroras. Although the lights danced in equal measure around both of Earth's poles, they were best seen in the southern hemisphere. "It is getting frosty, cold, and dark as winter approaches," says Taichi Nakamura of Dunedin NZ. "This allowed us to see a strong display in the south of New Zealand." He took this picture on June 6th:


Some readers have been asking, how can we have such strong auroras without sunspots? Answer: Sunspots are not required. These auroras were sparked by a stream of solar wind fire-hosing out of a coronal hole in the sun's atmosphere. Such holes can form even when sunspots are completely absent. Indeed, there is one opening up right now. An emerging stream of solar wind could reach Earth as early as June 11-12, kickstarting a new display of Southern Lights. Stay tuned. Aurora alerts: textvoice.

Realtime Aurora Photo Gallery

SPACE BALLS FOR FATHER'S DAY (JUNE 19th): What do you give the Father who has everything? Space Balls! A few days ago, the students of Earth to Sky Calculus flew a basket of space-helmeted golf balls to the edge of space, 36.3 km (119,000 feet) above Earth's surface on board a high altitude helium balloon:


After the balloon exploded, the balls parachuted back to Earth, landing in the volcanic tablelands north of Bishop CA. For $49.95 you can have one of these balls (space helmet included) along with a unique Father's Day card showing the balls floating at the top of Earth's atmosphere. The interior of the card tells the story of the flight and confirms that this gift has been to the edge of space and back again.

All sales support student space weather research. In fact, the balls pictured above were hitchhiking on a payload equipped with radiation sensors. We send the sensors to the stratosphere every week to monitor increasing levels of cosmic rays. Visit the Earth to Sky store to support this crowd-funded research.

Realtime Space Weather Photo Gallery

Realtime Noctilucent Cloud Photo Gallery

Realtime Sprite Photo Gallery

Realtime Comet Photo Gallery

 All Sky Fireball Network

Every night, a network of NASA all-sky cameras scans the skies above the United States for meteoritic fireballs. Automated software maintained by NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office calculates their orbits, velocity, penetration depth in Earth's atmosphere and many other characteristics. Daily results are presented here on

On Jun. 7, 2016, the network reported 12 fireballs.
(11 sporadics, 1 Daytime Arietid)



In this diagram of the inner solar system, all of the fireball orbits intersect at a single point--Earth. The orbits are color-coded by velocity, from slow (red) to fast (blue). [Larger image] [movies]


 Near Earth Asteroids

Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are space rocks larger than approximately 100m that can come closer to Earth than 0.05 AU. None of the known PHAs is on a collision course with our planet, although astronomers are finding new ones all the time.

On June 7, 2016 there were 1704 potentially hazardous asteroids.

Recent & Upcoming Earth-asteroid encounters:Asteroid


Miss Distance


2016 LV

Jun 1

3.6 LD

108 m

2016 LB

Jun 3

5.5 LD

122 m

2016 JB29

Jun 4

12.1 LD

49 m

2016 KR

Jun 5

9.9 LD

41 m

2016 LG

Jun 6

2.9 LD

35 m

2016 LT1

Jun 7

0.4 LD

7 m

2016 LR

Jun 9

5.9 LD

23 m

1997 XF11

Jun 10

70 LD

1.8 km

2016 KL

Jun 11

5.7 LD

32 m

2015 XZ378

Jun 13

9.7 LD

16 m

2016 LJ8

Jun 13

6.4 LD

50 m

2009 CV

Jun 20

12.4 LD

60 m

2010 NY65

Jun 24

10.7 LD

215 m

2002 KL6

Jul 22

26.6 LD

1.4 km

2011 BX18

Jul 25

52.7 LD

1.1 km

2005 OH3

Aug 3

5.8 LD

28 m

2000 DP107

Aug 12

66.5 LD

1.0 km

Notes: LD means "Lunar Distance." 1 LD = 384,401 km, the distance between Earth and the Moon. 1 LD also equals 0.00256 AU. MAG is the visual magnitude of the asteroid on the date of closest approach.

 Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere

Situation Report -- Oct. 30, 2015Stratospheric Radiation (+37o N)

Cosmic ray levels are elevated(+6.1% above the Space Age median). The trend is flat. Cosmic ray levels have increased +0% in the past month.

Sept. 06: 4.14 uSv/hr (414 uRad/hr)

Sept. 12: 4.09 uSv/hr (409 uRad/hr)

Sept. 23: 4.12 uSv/hr (412 uRad/hr)

Sept. 25: 4.16 uSv/hr (416 uRad/hr)

Sept. 27: 4.13 uSv/hr (413 uRad/hr)

Oct. 11: 4.02 uSv/hr (402 uRad/hr)

Oct. 22: 4.11 uSv/hr (411 uRad/hr)

These measurements are based on regular space weather balloon flights: learn more.

Approximately once a week, and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus fly "space weather balloons" to the stratosphere over California. These balloons are equipped with radiation sensors that detect cosmic rays, a surprisingly "down to Earth" form of space weather. Cosmic rays can seed cloudstrigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. Our measurements show that someone flying back and forth across the continental USA, just once, can absorb as much ionizing radiation as 2 to 5 dental X-rays. For example, here is the data from a flight on Oct. 22, 2015:


Radiation levels peak at the entrance to the stratosphere in a broad region called the "Pfotzer Maximum." This peak is named after physicist George Pfotzer who discovered it using balloons and Geiger tubes in the 1930s. Radiation levels there are more than 80x sea level.

Note that the bottom of the Pfotzer Maximim is near 55,000 ft. This means that some high-flying aircraft are not far from the zone of maximum radiation. Indeed, according to the Oct 22th measurements, a plane flying at 45,000 feet is exposed to 2.79 uSv/hr. At that rate, a passenger would absorb about one dental X-ray's worth of radiation in about 5 hours.

The radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.


Current Conditions

Solar wind
speed: 449.9 km/sec
density: 3.6 protons/cm3

explanation | more data
Updated: Today at 1441 UTX-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: B1
1320 UT Jun07
24-hr: B1 0606 UT Jun07
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at: 1400 UTDaily Sun: 07 Jun 16For the first time in almost two years, the sun is blank--no sunspots! Credit: SDO/HMI

Sunspot number: 0
What is the sunspot number?
Updated 07 Jun 2016

Spotless Days
Current Stretch: 4 days
2016 total: 4 days (1%) 
2015 total: 0 days (0%) 

2014 total: 1 day (<1%)
2013 total: 0 days (0%)
2012 total: 0 days (0%)
2011 total: 2 days (<1%)
2010 total: 51 days (14%)
2009 total: 260 days (71%)

Updated 07 Jun 2016

The Radio Sun
10.7 cm flux: 79 sfu

explanation | more data
Updated 07 Jun 2016

Current Auroral Oval:


Switch to: Europe, USA, New Zealand, Antarctica
Credit: NOAA/OvationPlanetary K-index
Now: Kp= 3 quiet
24-hr max: Kp= 3
explanation | more data
Interplanetary Mag. Field
Btotal: 5.8 nT
Bz: 1.5 nT north

explanation | more data
Updated: Today at 1441 UTCoronal Holes: 07 Jun 16Solar wind flowing from the indicated coronal hole should reach Earth on June 11-12. Credit: SDO/AIA.Noctilucent Clouds Images from NASA's AIM spacecraft are once again appearing on Check back daily for space-based sightings of noctilucent clouds.


Switch view: Europe, USA, Asia, PolarUpdated at: 06-06-2016 16:55:02

NOAA Forecasts

Updated at: 2016 Jun 06 2200 UTC


0-24 hr

24-48 hr


01 %

01 %


01 %

01 %

Geomagnetic Storms:
Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth's magnetic field are given for three activity levels: activeminor stormsevere stormUpdated at: 2016 Jun 06 2200 UTCMid-latitudes

0-24 hr

24-48 hr


20 %

10 %


05 %

05 %


01 %

01 %

High latitudes

0-24 hr

24-48 hr


20 %

15 %


25 %

20 %


25 %

15 %